Formal Education System and Skill Development: A Case Study of Iraq 

Sultana Begum 

English Language Teaching Department, Tishk International University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Email: [email protected]  

Published: February 22, 2023


The eighth goal of sustainable development is to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and productive employment and decent work for all including men and women. The world economic forum estimates that by 2025 around 85 million jobs may be displaced by a shift in the division of labour between human and machines. Digital transformation is rapidly changing the skills needed for the youth for getting employment or to start a new business of their own. In this context, does the formal education system, in Iraq, provide the people with the required skills and training they need to perform their jobs well or to start a business or help them to find employment? The main aim of this research is exploring the answers of the respondents from Iraq using the world values survey data of seventh wave which was conducted between 2017 to 2022. The research also analyzes the variances based on education level of 1200 respondents from Iraq. The research hypothesis is to explore whether any statistically significant relationship exists between the skills variables and the moderator variable Education level of the respondent’s Cross tabulation, Fleiss Kappa and Chi2 Test were used for analysis. The results of the Chi2 Test performed show a moderate to small effect. The findings of the research contribute for the policy makers to explore the future scope for skill development in Iraq through education planning. 

Keywords: Formal Education, Education planning, Skill Development, Education level

DOI: 10.23918/vesal2023v43