Peshawa Mohammed Ali
International Relations & Diplomacy Department, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq
Email: [email protected]
(Full Paper)

The violence which lasted to access sectarian identities has occurred at times during Iraq modern history, it was not a constant or normal state of events. Nevertheless, the historical observations for Iraq modern history demonstrate the escalation in the sectarian violence, progressively. The continuing of sectarian separation and its socio-political increment within the regional troubles could represent the disastrous secret of current Iraqi society. This thesis study clarifies the roots, and motivators of sectarian violence through a comparative analysis of literature, and questionnaire development among professionals. This thesis has identified three important events in the modern history of Iraq, considered by scholars and researchers as milestones of sectarianism and sectarian conflict. ‘Failed State’ theory has been adopted on those events to interpret the sectarianism causes and subsequent results, through transform sectarian tensions into sectarian violence due to the political, economic, and security vacuum. The thesis concluded by highlighting the following points; both, British occupation in the early of the twentieth century, and the occupation of the united states in the early of the twenty-first century were the root and motivators (respectively), for sectarianism in the modern history of Iraq. As a result of the inaccurate decision making by both occupiers because of their own state crises, Iraq has established and experienced state crises, weakness, and failure, throughout its modern history. This led to stimulating and escalating sectarian violence, and failed to prevent the identity division in the society, and prevent the escalade in sectarian salience due to the characteristic of failed state apparatus.

Keyword: Sectarianism, ‘Failure State theory’, National and Social Identity, Iraq, ‘Modern History of Iraq’.

ISBN 978-0-9962570-9-1

Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Economics
Tishk International University